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For patients

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proven particularly challenging to diagnose and treat. [1]

Often imaging findings to support the conclusion of brain trauma are not present and remain normal! [2]

Even in young people with prolonged post-concussion symptoms, no abnormality on imaging is most of the time demonstrated. [3]  

Severe single incident injuries, even without skull fracture may lead to permanent brain damage with incomplete recovery, with residual sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits and post-traumatic stress disorders frequently accompanying the TBI. [5]

Several neurologic symptoms and deficits, including headaches, fatigue, vision, balance, coordination, concentration, confusion, dizziness, insomnia, nausea and other autonomic system dysfunctions may occur.  

Changes in emotion are frequent and common corollaries of severe brain injury. [21] There is a growing trend to include “emotional TBI” into the TBI definition.  

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